Data Set Help

This system provides the NOAA-AVHRR( Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) data and FY-1-MVISR data (Muultispectral Visible and IR Scan Rediometer) acquired by TeraScan system installed at Toyama Prefecture Environmental Science Center( Kosugi-chou,Isui-gun, Toyama Prefecture) as well as Aqua/Terra-MODIS data( Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) acquired by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency(JAXA)
Begining on 1 March,2011, we have started acquisition of AVHRR (same sensor as NOAA satellite) data which is included in the AHRPT( Advanced High Resolution Picture ransmission) of METOP-A satellite operated by EUMETSAT( Europe) and added it into the NOAA dataset of this system.

Contents

NOAA Raw Data
 The raw data(HRPT: High Resolution Picture Transmission) supplied by this system is the data received by the TeraScan System installed at Environment and Science Center of Toyama Prefecture located at Kosugi-cho, Imizu-gun, Toyama Prefectture.
 NOAA data has the follwoing sensor.

AVHRR ( Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer )

 One(1) pass capacity of raw data varies depending on satellite orbit with maximum of 120 MB.
 HRPT data format is available from NOAA’s home page.

 The browse images for retrieval are acquired through AVHRR channel 2(near infra-red:0.725-1.10 micro-meter) during daytime and channel 4 (thermal infra-red: 10.3-11.3 micron-meter) during night-time and after reduction to 500(sample) x 2000(line) with top of the image being fixed to “North” regardless of satellite orbit, the land area is displayed in greenish color and ocean in bluish color.

Because of this, the greater the number of lines, the longer the images be displayed, but the horizontal swath width of any image is same with 2,048 pixels.

 During daytime, the greater the reflectance, the whiter the color of the browse image becomes and the smaller the reflectance, the more greenish or bluish it becomes.

During night-time, it covers temperature range of approx. -70 to 30 degreeC and lower the temperature, the whiter the image color, and higher the temperature, the more greenish or bluish the color becomes. The images are overlaid with the shore-lines and longitude/latitude lines (with 10 degree interval).

 The amount of clouds for total image, land and ocean are approximated and are shown in ratio proportionate to cloud area.

NOAA TDF Data
TDF Data is the TeraScan common Data Format which is the standard format of TeraScan Software provided by SeaSpace Corp in the U.S.
The items that can be specified by order are satellite name and data reception period.
For details of TDF data, see

NOAA / AVHRR Level3
AVHRR Level 3 data supplied by this system is the processed data after data extraction , calibration, position correction and geometric correction which are done according to satellite name, reception period, channel, and output data type as selected by the users.
   These processings are done by TeraScan software and geometric correction is done under Auto-Navigation.
   For TeraScan, see
http://www.seaspace.com/

Output Data Type
BSQ (Band Sequential) band by band binary data + information data
HDF(Hierarchical Data Format; National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.)
TDF(TeraScan common Data Format; SeaSpace TeraScan Dataset)
Output Image
TIFF
JPEG
PNG
PPM
GIF
GEOTIFF

NOAA / MCSST Composite Image
MCSST(Multi-Channel Sea Surface Temperature) is the sea surface temperature data calculated based on the brightness(radiated)temperature data from NOAA AVHRR thermal infra-red channel 4 and 5 by using the most common algorithm ( M Clain et al.,1985 )

MCSST Algorithm Calculation Formula
# Split window ( mc ):

SST = A*T4 + B*(T4-T5) + C*(T4-T5)*(SEC(sza)-1) + D*(SEC(sza)-1) + E

#Satel. Time A B C D E(K) E(C)
metop-A D 1.02498 2.33841 1.12412 0.0000 0.0000 -0.436713
metop-A N 1.00951 2.45661 1.05704 0.0000 0.0000 -0.3373435
noaa-19 D 1.03851 1.72867 0.85261 0.0000 0.0000 -0.7189935
noaa-19 N 1.00903 2.02274 0.68015 0.0000 0.0000 -0.7184555
noaa-18 D 1.02453 2.10044 0.784059 0.0000 0.0000 -0.579631
noaa-18 N 1.00841 2.23459 0.736946 0.0000 0.0000 -0.627809
noaa-17 D 0.992818 2.49916 0.915103 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0177633
noaa-17 N 1.01015 2.58150 1.00054 0.0000 0.0000 -0.6675275
noaa-16 D 0.999754 2.39418 0.732350 0.0000 0.0000 -0.981195
noaa-16 N 0.994396 2.55546 0.714178 0.0000 0.0000 -1.238733
noaa-15 D 0.959456 2.663579 0.570613 0.0000 12.1200 1.045
noaa-15 N 0.993892 2.752346 0.662999 0.0000 1.7530 0.084
noaa-14 D 1.017342 2.139588 0.779706 0.0000 -5.2800 -0.543
noaa-14 N 1.029088 2.275385 0.752567 0.0000 -9.0900 -1.145
noaa-12 D 1.013674 2.443474 0.314312 0.0000 -4.6470 -0.912
noaa-12 N 1.013674 2.443474 0.314312 0.0000 -4.6470 -0.912
noaa-11 D 1.01345 2.659762 0.526548 0.0000 -4.5920 -0.918
noaa-11 N 1.052 2.397089 0.959766 0.0000 -15.5200 -1.316
noaa-9 D 0.9994 2.7057 -0.27 0.7300 0.1177 -0.046
noaa-9 N 0.9994 2.7057 -0.27 0.7300 0.1177 -0.046

In addition to above, another algorithm to distinguish cloud area(Bernstein 1982) based on data from AVHRR channel 2(daytime use) and channel 3 (night-time use) is also used.
In order to reduce the cloud area during composite image production period, the effects of cloud area is eliminated by selecting the maximum value of MCSST in each element of the image.
The temperature range is -10 degreeC to 10.5 degreeC in 0.1 degreeC steps.
Output of the processed data is an annotated 2-byte data.
Value for land area is “-12” and “-32768” for cloud area and area outside of swath.

Area of Produced Image
Around Japan: (3000 samples x 3140 lines )
Center position 35 degrees N, 132.5 E
Latitude/Longitude at four corners 50N/115E 50N/150E
20N/115E 20N/150E
Resolution 1.1km
Projection method Rectangular

NOAA / MCSST Daytime Composite Image (10 days)
This image provides 10 day composite of the Multi-Channel Sea Surface Temperature (MCSST) data on each paths. In order to reduce the cloud area during composite image production period, the effects of cloud area is eliminated by selecting the maximum value of MCSST in each element of the image.
The images are generated with the temperature range of -2 to 30 degree (Centigrade), assined 256 colors to the range, and created with JPEG format.

Sea of Japan area
Latitude and longitude coordinates 50N / 115E 50N / 150E
20N / 115E 20N / 150E
Resolution 1.1km
Range of temperature -2 to 30 degree(Centigrade)
Drawing Rectangular

Period of composite
10 days The composite data is made between 1st and 10th, 11th and 20th, 21th and 31th in each months.
“Daytime” is defined that solar elevation angle > 10 degrees.

NOAA / MCSST Nighttime Composite Image (10 days)
This image provides 10 day composite of the Multi-Channel Sea Surface Temperature (MCSST) data on each paths. In order to reduce the cloud area during composite image production period, the effects of cloud area is eliminated by selecting the maximum value of MCSST in each element of the image.
The images are generated with the temperature range of -2 to 30 degree (Centigrade), assined 256 colors to the range, and created with JPEG format.

Sea of Japan area
Latitude and longitude coordinates 50N / 115E 50N / 150E
20N / 115E 20N / 150E
Resolution 1.1km
Range of temperature -2 to 30 degree(Centigrade)
Drawing Rectangular

Period of composite
10 days The composite data is made between 1st and 10th, 11th and 20th, 21th and 31th in each months.
“Nighttime” is defined that solar elevation angle <= 10 degrees.

NOAA / MCSST Nighttime Composite Image (daily)
This image provides one day composite of the Multi-Channel Sea Surface Temperature (MCSST) data on each paths of a day. In order to reduce the cloud area during composite image production period, the effects of cloud area is eliminated by selecting the maximum value of MCSST in each element of the image.
The images are generated with the temperature range of -2 to 30 degree (Centigrade), assined 256 colors to the range, and created with JPEG format.

Sea of Japan area
Latitude and longitude coordinates 50N / 115E 50N / 150E
20N / 115E 20N / 150E
Resolution 1.1km
Range of temperature -2 to 30 degree(Centigrade)
Drawing Rectangular

Period of composite
10 days The composite data is made by each days (on GMT).
“Nighttime” is defined that solar elevation angle <= 10 degrees.

NOAA / NDVI Month Composite Image
   NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) is the index which is represents vegetation amount or activities from spectrum charactorisitics of vegetation.
This system provides the NDVI data with following algorithm which is most paticulary used:

   NDVI = (NIR – RED) / (NIR + RED)

where,
   NIR : AVHRR Channel 2 (Near Infra-red)
   RED : AVHRR Channel 1 (Reflectance of red light wavelength)

NDVI values are taken as the range of -1 to 1. The value of -0.5 can be identified as cloud, so the range is put as -0.5 to 1, and calcurates following value transfer:

   INDVI = NDVI * 100 + 50

As far as the image output, the transfer is follows to represent color as 240 colors:

   INDVI = NDVI * 160 + 50

The value which is out of observation range is “INDVI = 255”, and the value of sea or lake is “INDVI = 0”.

The NDVI data is composite of solar azimuth with over 20 degree, and generates each month period.

Range of the data
Around Japan (3000 Sample¡ß3140 Line)
Center Location 35.0N / 132.5E
Scene Corner Lat./Lon. 50N / 115E 50N / 150E
20N / 115E 20N / 150E
Spacial Resolution 1.1km
Mapping Method Rectangular
Composite Period (GMT)
Month Between 1st day and last day of the month

FY-1 Raw Data
   The raw data supplied by this system (HRPT: High Resolution Picture Transmission ) is the data received by the TeraScan System installed at the Environment and Science Center of Toyama Prefecture located at Kosugi-cho, Imizu-gun, Toyama Prefecture.
   FY-1 data includes the following sensors.

MVISR ( Multispectral Visible and IR Scan Radiometer)

These are comprised of 5 NOAA AVHRR channels and 5 visible range channels, total 10 channel sensors.

   One(1) pass capacity of raw data varies depending on satellite orbit with maximum of 240 MB.
   HRPT data Format is available from NOAA home page.

   The browse images for retrieval are acquired through AVHRR channel 2(near infra-red : 0.725-1.10 micron meter) during daytime and channel 4 (thermal infra-red:10.3-11.3 micron meter) during night-time. The image is reduced to 500 (sample)x 2000(line) with top of the image being fixed to north regardless of satellite orbit and the land area is displayed in greenish color and the ocean in bluish color.Because of this, the greater the number of received lines, the longer the displayed image but the right to left swath width has 2,048 pixels which is same with every image.
   The greater the reflectance during daytime, the whiter the browse image is displayed, and smaller the reflectance, the darker the greenish or bluish color becomes.During night-time, the browse image covers temperature range of -70 to 30 degreeC and lower the temperature, the whiter the image and higher the temperature, the darker the greenish or bluish .The images are overlaid with shorelines and latitude/longitude lines(10 degree interval).
The amount of clouds covering overall image, land and ocean area are approximated and are shown in ratio proportionate to cloud area.

FY-1 MVISR Data
FY-1 MVISR is map projected data of FY-1 RAW. The projection method is “Rectangular”, and other contents or parameter is same as FY-1 Raw Data. This dataset is for search and view only, so you can not order this data.

MODIS / Chlorophyll-a
The Terra/Aqua satellite’s “chlorophyll A” data is received at Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).
This image provides the sea color (chlorophyll A) data at a resolution of 1 km. The data was processed based on the physical amount presumption algorithm developed as one of the products of ADEOS-II GLI. The MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data of the Toyama Bay and of the NOWPAP area are made for distribution on the Web and provided in a JPEG format.

NOWPAP area
Latitude and longitude coordinates 50N / 115E 50N / 150E
20N / 115E 20N / 150E
Resolution 1.1km
Physical quantity 0.01 – 32 mg/m3
Drawing Rectangular

 The green, yellow, and red colors reflect the density of the chlorophyll as it rises. The black color reflect the cloud cover, as well as, possible data processing problems, etc.. The blue color represents areas where data is not available.

 Please note that a possibility exists where the data does not accurately show the density of the chlorophyll around tidal flats in the bay’s interior area, etc.

 The AQUA/MODIS and TERRA/MODIS utilize sensors of the same specifications.

 A possibility exists where the same observation value (brightness) may not be the same even though the same target is observed due to differences such as the observation’s wave length or deterioration of a sensor.

 Various coefficients used by the algorithm and the radiation transmission’s calculation values are matched to specific response characteristics for each sensor. The latter values are then calculated. After changes in the sensor’s sensitivity are evaluated by using a variety of methods, the observation radiance values are then adjusted and used for processing by the algorithm. Problems associated with the presumption value of the physical quantity should be minimal.

 However, factors peculiar to each sensor cannot be completely corrected.

 There is a possibility that combinations causes errors in the data, and it is believed that differences could be reflected in both sensor’s data presumption values.

 Please consider the above discussed error conditions before utilizing the data. These data are provided on an ‘as is’ basis, and we are not responsible for any errors in the data nor how the data is ultimately used by the user.

MODIS / SST Day Composite Image
This composite image provides the sea’s surface water temperature (SST) data at a resolution of 1 km. The data was processed based on the physical amount presumption algorithms developed as one of the products of the ADEOS-II GLI. The MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data of the Toyama Bay and of the NOWPAP is taken from the Terra/Aqua satellite and received at Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) facilities where it is processed and made for distribution on the Web every day, and provided in a JPEG format.

NOWPAP area
Latitude and longitude coordinates 50N / 115E 50N / 150E
20N / 115E 20N / 150E
Resolution 1.1km
Range of temperature -10 – 35 degree(Centigrade)
Drawing Rectangular

Level3 BSQ Output Data Value
 The BSQ output data of this system is produced in 8 bit/word unsigned binary format.
 Each output data is a calibrated data , therefore, each output data has unit and fixed min-value and max-value.
 Output data does not contain information such as header. As for header information, a separate information file is attached in text format.
 The output value of each data can be calculated by the following formula.
 For the minimum value(min-value), maximum value(max-value) ,and step value(temp-step), refer to the information file.

NOAA/AVHRR

  Channel Name (Unit) Figures in ( ) are fixed values
  avhrr_ch1(albedo) =   byte_scaled × temp_step(0.4) + min_value(0)
  avhrr_ch2(albedo) = //
  avhrr_ch3(celsius) =   byte_scaled × temp_step(0.25) + min_value(-10) 
  avhrr_ch4(celsius) =   byte_scaled × temp_step(0.4) + min_value(-60)
  avhrr_ch5(celsius) = //

The calibration algorithm is based on information contained in Techniques for Data Extraction and Calibration of TIROS-N/NOAA Series Satellite Radiometers for Direct Readout Users by Levin Lauritson and Gary Nelson (NOAA-NESS Publication #107, July 1979).

FY-1/MVISR

  Channel Name (Unit) Figures in ( ) are fixed values
mvisr_ch1(albedo) = byte_scaled * temp_step(0.4) + min_value(0)
mvisr_ch2(albedo) = //
mvisr_ch3(celsius) = byte_scaled * temp_step(0.25) + min_value(-10)
mvisr_ch4(celsius) = byte_scaled * temp_step(0.4) + min_value(-60)
mvisr_ch5(celsius) = //
mvisr_ch6(celsius) = byte_scaled * temp_step(0.4) + min_value(0)
//
mvisr_ch8(albedo) = //
mvisr_ch9(albedo) = //
mvisr_ch10(albedo) = //

Contents of Information File
Contents of Information File
dataset Dataset name
num_site Number of receiving site
satellite Satellite name
start_date Date when reception started
end_date Date when reception ended
file_name Output file name
channel Output channel name
unit Data unit
projection_name Map projection method
equator_radius Earth radius (km)
num_lines Total line numbers
num_samples Total sample numbers
min_value Minimum value of data
max_value Maximum value of data
temp_step Step value of data
center_lat Latitude of central coordinates
center_lon Longitude of central coordinates
pixel_width Horizontal resolution of pixel in central coordinates(km)
pixel_height Vertical resolution of pixel in central coordinates(km)
total_width Maximum distance of horizontal axis in central part (km)
pixel_width * num_samples
total_height Maximum distance of vertical axis in central part (km)
pixel_height * num_lines
upper_edge_len Maximum distance of upper edge (km)
lower_edge_len Maximum distance of lower edge (km)
left_edge_len Maximum distance of left edge (km)
right_edge_len Maximum distance of right edge (km)
upper_left_lat Latitude of upper left edge coordinates
upper_left_lon Longitude of upper left edge coordinates
upper_right_lat Latitude of upper right edge coordinates
upper_right_lon Longitude of upper right edge coordinates
lower_left_lat Latitude of lower left edge coordinates
lower_left_lon Longitude of lower left edge coordinates
lower_right_lat Latitude of lower right edge coordinates
lower_right_lon Longitude of lower right edge coordinates
mid_left_lat Latitude of middle left coordinates
mid_left_lon Longitude of middle left coordinates
mid_right_lat Latitude of middle right coordinates
mid_right_lon Longitude of middle right coordinates
mid_upper_lat Latitude of middle upper coordinates
mid_upper_lon Longitude of middle upper coordinates
mid_lower_lat Latitude of middle lower coordinates
mid_lower_lon Longitude of middle lower coordinates
center_sun Sun elevation angle viewed from central coordinates
upper_left_sun Sun elevation angle viewed from upper left edge coordinates
upper_right_sun Sun elevation angle viewed from upper right edge coordinates
lower_left_sun Sun elevation angle viewed from lower left edge coordinates
lower_right_sun Sun elevation angle viewed from lower right edge coordinates
mid_left_sun Sun elevation angle viewed from middle left coordinates
mid_right_sun Sun elevation angle viewed from middle right coordinates
mid_lower_sun Sun elevation angle viewed from middle lower coordinates
mid_upper_sun Sun elevation angle viewed from middle upper coordinates
center_sat Satellite elevation angle viewed from central coordinates
upper_left_sat Satellite elevation angle viewed from upper left edge coordinates
upper_right_sat Satellite elevation angle viewed from upper right edge coordinates
lower_left_sat Satellite elevation angle viewed from lower left edge coordinates
lower_right_sat Satellite elevation angle viewed from lower right edge coordinates
mid_left_sat Satellite elevation angle viewed from middle left coordinates
mid_right_sat Satellite elevation angle viewed from middle right coordinates
mid_lower_sat Satellite elevation angle viewed from middle lower coordinates
mid_upper_sat Sarellite elevation angle viewed from middle upper coordinates
sat_sub_lat Latitude of a point right under a satellite when satellite comes in the closest proximity of central coordinates
sat_sub_lon Longitude of a point right under a sarellite when satellite comes in the closest proximity of central coordinates